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A typical digital certificate 20 is illustrated in .
There are a number of protocols and standards, including the X.509 standard and the PKCS 7 standard, that specify mandatory and optional fields that should be used in digital certificates.
The digital certificate 20 illustrated in contains the following fields: Distinguished Name.
The distinguished name is the concatenation of several fields, including Common Name, one or more Organizational Units, Organization, Locality, State, and Country. The Common Name is usually the domain name (e.g., amazon.com) of the computer 2 that presented the certificate 20.
However, the Common Name can also be the IP (Internet Protocol) address (e.g., .61) of the computer 2 that presented the certificate 20. This is the date that the digital certificate 20 was issued by the Signing Authority (SA), the entity that digitally signed the certificate 20. This is the date on which the digital certificate 20 will expire.
After the expiration date, the digital certificate 20 should not be further used or accepted.
Computer-implemented methods, apparati, and computer-readable media for thwarting computer attacks. This patent application further claims the benefit of and is a continuation-in-part of U. For example, using the SSL protocol, a user may divulge his credit card number to a merchant's Website secure in the knowledge that all communications with the Website are encrypted.
A method embodiment of the present invention comprises the steps of examining (52) a digital certificate (20) presented by a server computer (2); compiling (53) a set of suspicion indications (31) gleaned... However, the SSL protocol provides that encrypted communications must pass straight through the enterprise firewall unexamined.
The SA's digital signature is formed by the signing authority using a hash function to create a message digest of the certificate proper 28, then encrypting said message digest using its private key. This digital certificate is used by third parties to verify the legitimacy of the signing authority, and typically contains the same or similar fields as certificate proper 28, including the public key of the SA.The two fields described immediately above are referred to as the “signing block” 29.illustrates apparatus suitable for carrying out the present invention.This patent application claims the benefit of and is a continuation-in-part of U. As firewalls are configured to block traffic more strictly on ports known to be used by Remote Access Trojans (RATs) or suspicious traffic in general, attackers are increasingly tunneling return traffic from a compromised computer to the attacker's network using SSL. 7,366,919, entitled “Use of Geo-Location Data for Spam Detection,” having the same assignee and the same two inventors as the present patent application. The SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) protocol is a popular Internet protocol for allowing a client computer to engage in secure communications with a server computer.